Carthaginian cavalry routed off the field. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal. Under the treaty, Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire, by that time a fait-accompli. [10], Hannibal's army consisted of 36,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and 80 war elephants, while Scipio had a total of 29,000 infantry and 6,100 cavalry. Los romanos realizaron la estrategia de abrir pasillos entre sus filas para dejar pasar a las bestias, aprovechando la ocasión para saetearlas. Hannibal most likely believed that the combination of the war elephants and the depth of the first two lines would weaken and disorganize the Roman advance. Las tropas de Aníbal comenzaron a retroceder, por lo que el líder púnico volvió a ordenar que no se le permitiese marchar hacia atrás, dando como resultado un movimiento similar al anterior: la segunda línea se dividió y se reposicionó en las alas de la tercera. Scipio attacks Hannibal's first and second lines of infantry and routs both. La primera unidad estaba formada por 12 000 mercenarios infantes entre ligures, galos, mauritanos y baleares;[4]​[16]​ la segunda, por africanos y cartagineses, de los cuales había 10 000 ciudadanos que iban a luchar para defender su tierra,[17]​ y una legión de 4000 macedonios[18]​ al mando de Sópatro;[19]​ la tercera unidad estaba formada por 15 000 a 18 000 infantes veteranos de Aníbal,[4]​[17]​ en su gran mayoría brutios, directamente bajo sus órdenes. A furious struggle ensued and the Roman hastati were pushed back with heavy losses. 2. The remaining elephants are lured through the lanes and killed. Hannibal's third line of veterans, reinforced by the citizen levies and mercenaries, faced off against the Roman army, which had been redeployed into a single line. Este número de elefantes es mucho mayor que el que normalmente utilizaba Aníbal. Confident in Hannibal's forces, the Carthaginians broke the armistice with Rome. En ella se enfrentaron el general cartaginés Aníbal Barca y el joven Publio Cornelio Escipión, «el Africano Mayor», en las llanuras de Zama Regia. It was the end of the Second Punic War. Hannibal and the Carthaginians had relied on cavalry superiority in previous battles such as Cannae, but Scipio, recognizing their importance, held the cavalry advantage at Zama. The panicked elephants turn on the Carthaginian left wing and rampage through it. RUTA 1. Antes del combate se produjo una breve reunión entre Escipión y Aníbal en una colina cerca de donde se lucharía. Hannibal led an army comprising Spanish mercenaries, Gallic allies, local citizens and veterans, and Numidian cavalry from his Italian campaigns. The two men are said to have met face-to-face before the battle. Hannibal begins the battle with his war elephants charging at Roman front. El campo se hallaba cubierto de sangre y cadáveres, de modo que los veteranos hubieron de mantenerse a la defensiva. Date: 8 May 2015: Source: Own work: Author: Zirguezi: This file contains text that might be in a language different from your own. A játékmenet erősen épít a terület mozgatás és a kockadobás mechanizmusokra. Zama The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. En 205 a. C., Escipión regresó a Roma, donde fue elegido cónsul por voto unánime. Atacaron la formación compacta de los cartagineses desde la retaguardia, de manera que se produjo el colapso del ejército de Aníbal, quien hubo de huir a Hadrumentum ante el temor a una posible persecución por parte de las tropas de Escipión. Tras esto ejerció como funcionario del tesoro en Cartago, pero los sufetes le acusaron de robar fondos del Estado. Click on the Bus route to see step by step directions with maps, line arrival times and updated time schedules. The Carthaginian infantry was encircled and annihilated. Venning, Timothy & Drinkwater, John (2011). Unlike the treaty that ended the First Punic War, the terms Carthage acceded to were so punishing that it was never able to challenge Rome for supremacy of the Mediterranean again. The Roman second line joined the struggle and pushed back the Carthaginian assault. In total, as many as 20,000 of Hannibal's troops were killed at Zama, while 20,000 more were taken prisoner. It has simple rules: The units can move one to three spaces (depends of each type) and battles are resolved by dice rolls; thus modified by strength of the units (infantry, cavalry, elephant) and area. Scipio's soldiers avoided the elephants by opening their ranks and drove them off with missiles. Scipio reinforced the hastati with the second-line principes.[10]. The Carthaginians lost 20,000–25,000 killed and 8,500–20,000 captured. Lacus Curtius: Las guerras púnicas de Apiano de Alejandría, Zama: el final de la segunda guerra púnica, https://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Batalla_de_Zama&oldid=130078728, Wikipedia:Artículos con datos por trasladar a Wikidata, Wikipedia:Artículos con coordenadas en Wikidata, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores LCCN, Wikipedia:Páginas con enlaces mágicos de ISBN, Licencia Creative Commons Atribución Compartir Igual 3.0, 20 000-25 000 muertos y 8500-20 000 prisioneros. Pocas veces dos generales tan influyentes en la historia se han visto cara a cara antes de la batalla. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal. Este último combate permaneció igualado hasta que regresaron Cayo Lelio y Masinisa al mando de la caballería y el ejército púnico sucumbió, decidiéndose la batalla. No obstante, Escipión y sus partidarios pudieron convencer al Senado de que ratificara el plan, y a Escipión se le dio la autoridad necesaria para intentar la invasión. La entrada en combate de los veteranos de la guerra en Italia, desgastadas las menos numerosas tropas de infantería romanas, inclinó la balanza del lado de Aníbal, cuyas tropas empezaron a ganar terreno. Escipión formó alrededor de veinte mil legionarios, más catorce mil auxiliares y la caballería, que comprendía cuatro mil jinetes númidas traídos por Masinisa[15]​ y dos mil setecientos equites romanos. Los cartagineses formaron tres unidades, colocando a los ochenta elefantes al frente. This was due in part to his raising of a new cavalry regiment in Sicily and careful courting of Masinissa as an ally. This allowed the Romans to establish a casus belli for the Third Punic War when the Carthaginians defended themselves from Numidian encroachments in which the Romans did not intervene. Cundió el nerviosismo entre algunos de los elefantes, pues habían sido capturados recientemente, que retrocedieron en estampida contra la propia caballería númida de Tiqueo, creando un gran desorden. Again, it was not allowed to merge with the third line and was forced to the wings, along with the first line. Aníbal ordenó entonces a la segunda línea que impidiese activamente, por las armas si fuera necesario, que la primera retrocediera. Bus: 2; Train: C-1; How to get to Calle Batalla de Zama by Bus? In his second line he placed the Carthaginian and Libyan citizen levies, while his veterans from Italy, including mercenaries from Gaul and Hispania, were placed in the third line. La batalla de Zama tuvo lugar en el año 202 a.C cerca de Zama en el actual Seba Biar, Túnez. A batalla de Zama, librada o 19 de outubro do 202 a.C., foi unha batalla decisiva da segunda guerra púnica.Nesta batalla o exército da República Romana, liderado por Publio Cornelio Escipión o Africano, derrotou as forzas de Cartago lideradas por Aníbal.Logo desta derrota, o senado de Cartago asinou un tratado de paz, rematando así unha guerra de case 20 anos. Defeated on their home ground, the Carthaginian ruling elite sued for peace and accepted humiliating terms, ending the 17-year war. Igualmente añadió un importante contingente de elefantes hasta un número de ochenta paquidermos, los que protagonizarían la carga inicial de la batalla. [16], Scipio now marched with his center towards the Carthaginian center, which was under the direct command of Hannibal. Aníbal huyó con los restos de sus tropas. Escipión tomó dos medidas geniales para contrarrestar el ataque de los elefantes: ordenó a sus hombres bruñir corazas, cascos y cualquier cosa de metal, de tal modo que el sol se reflejara en ellos y deslumbrara a los animales, y se hizo acompañar por músicos y los llevó a vanguardia, donde sus cuernos y trompetas espantaron a los animales de la izquierda, de tal modo que retrocedieron y sembraron la confusión entre la caballería númida. [8] Meanwhile, the Carthaginians breached the armistice agreement by capturing a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripping it of supplies. Las caballerías de Masinisa y Lelio atacaron y provocaron la huida de la caballería númida de Tiqueo, mientras que los veteranos de Aníbal comenzaban a ganar terreno. Los romanos adoptaron la disposición clásica de batalla de la legión, denominada triplex acies: con los lanceros hastati en primera línea, los veteranos príncipes en segunda y los lanceros triarii, armados con lanzas largas, detrás. Crossing the Alps, Hannibal reached the Italian peninsula in 218 BC and won several major victories against the Roman armies. Finally, Scipio's cavalry returned to the battle and attacked Hannibal's army in the rear, routing and destroying it. La alargada segunda línea cartaginesa avanzó, obligando a los hastati a retroceder, por lo que Escipión ordenó que avanzaran los princeps de la segunda línea. Sin embargo, Escipión había deducido su estrategia y decidió contrarrestarla mediante la imitación, por lo que él también ordenó formar una sola línea con los hastati, princeps y triarii, igualando así la longitud del ejército de Aníbal e impidiéndole envolverle. 16. Masinissa was to be allowed to expand Numidia into parts of Africa. Atacados desde los flancos por las lanzas de los legionarios, los elefantes murieron o retrocedieron hacia las líneas cartaginesas. Por otro lado, entre las filas romanas hubo 1500 muertos[21]​ y 4000 heridos. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, "Rome and Macedon, 205-203 B.C." Scipio refused, saying that it was either unconditional surrender or battle. Antes de conocer la disposición de las fuerzas de cada bando en el mapa de la batalla de Zama, hay que detenernos brevemente en el tamaño de cada ejército, ya que, a pesar de ser una de las batallas más importantes de la Antigüedad, no contamos con cifras exactas totalmente fiables. Hannibal had 36,000 infantry to Scipio's 29,000. Scipio lost 4,000–5,000 men, and 1,500–2,500 Romans and 2,500 Numidians were killed. Scipio, now powerful enough, proposed to end the war by directly invading the Carthaginian homeland. [6]:271 He landed at Utica and defeated the Carthaginian army at the Battle of the Great Plains in 203 BC. He created lanes between the regiments across the depth of his forces and hid them with maniples of skirmishers. Once the Carthaginian cavalry was far enough away, they turned and attacked the Roman cavalry but were eventually routed. Their presence is widely discounted as Roman propaganda, although T. Dorey suggests that there may be a grain of truth here if the Carthaginians recruited a trivial and unofficial number of mercenaries from Macedonia.[13]. [22]​ Sus acciones militares quedarían condicionadas a la autorización romana, algo que, junto con diversas humillaciones, terminaría desembocando en la tercera guerra púnica, en la que la ciudad de Cartago sería finalmente arrasada. The treaty bankrupted Carthage and destroyed any chance of its being a military power in the future, although its economic recovery was quick. The Carthaginians no longer believed a treaty advantageous, and rebuffed it under much Roman protest.[9]. És recordada per ser la darrera batalla en la que es van enfrontar el general cartaginès Anníbal Barca i Publi Corneli Escipió. The panicked Carthaginians felt that they had no alternative but to offer peace to Scipio, and having the authority to do so, Scipio granted peace on generous terms. The bulk of them managed to escape and position themselves on the wings of the second line on Hannibal's instructions. The resulting clash was fierce and bloody, with neither side achieving superiority. De acuerdo con Apiano, entre los mandos romanos y aliados númidas que secundaron a Escipión durante la batalla, estaba el propretor de la flota con base en Cerdeña, Cneo Octavio, un legado llamado Minucio Termo, Cayo Lelio, Dacamas y Masinisa. From Poligono Industrial Lo Bolarín, La Unión 57 min. Hannibal also employed 80 war elephants. A Batalla de Zama egy kiváló társasjáték, 2 játékos részére. [10], Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Army and Fleet of Publius Scipio's African Campaign: 204 BC, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Zama&oldid=990836022, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 19:46. Hannibal offered a treaty that would give up any claims to overseas territories to ensure the sovereignty of Carthage. De este modo, Aníbal había extendido la longitud de su segunda línea con miras a envolver al ejército oponente con un movimiento de pinza similar, aunque metodológicamente diferente, a como había hecho en la batalla de Cannas. Como consecuencia de la derrota en la segunda guerra púnica, Cartago sería forzada al desarme militar, y con la misma condición impuesta al ser derrotada en la primera guerra púnica, prohibiéndosele tener una flota de guerra, algo que rompía su estatus de potencia. The greatest concern for Scipio was the elephants. Thousands of Carthaginians, including Hannibal, managed to escape the slaughter. Hannibal's first line of mercenaries attacked Scipio's infantry and were defeated. [12] Hannibal intentionally held back his third infantry line, in order to thwart Scipio's tendency to pin the Carthaginian center and envelop his opponent's lines, as he had done at the Battle of Ilipa. J.R.S., XLIV (1954), pp. Licensing. Esta derrota marcaba el final de la segunda guerra púnica. [14] Hannibal ordered his second line not to allow the first line in their ranks. [8] Hannibal now charged with his second line. They organized a defense of their home city which, after an extended siege, was captured and completely destroyed in 146 BC. [7]:119, Scipio continued to reinforce his troops with local defectors. Las bajas cartaginesas se elevaron a alrededor de 20 000 muertos,[20]​ junto con 11 000 heridos y 15 000 prisioneros. Batalla de Zama CONCLUSIÓN LO QUE NOS HAN LLAMADO LA ATENCIÓN... No había ejército en África para oponerse a Esciprión "SI hubiera vencido en Zama, sería el mayor general de la historia, por delante de Alejandro Magno" Aníbal. Tras unos días regresarían a Cartago derrotados. The following transit lines have routes that pass near Calle Batalla de Zama. Las unidades se encontraban separadas por pequeños pasillos que les permitían maniobrar, por los cuales debían escapar los hostigadores vélites cuando la carga cartaginesa se hiciera insostenible, al mismo tiempo que evitarían que los elefantes rompieran la formación. Scipio deployed his army in three lines: the first was composed of the hastati, the second of principes and the third of the triarii. At the outset of the battle, Hannibal unleashed his elephants and skirmishers against the Roman troops in order to break the cohesion of their lines and exploit the breaches that could be opened. The battle took place at Zama Regia, near Siliana 130 km southwest of Tunis. Scipio and his supporters eventually convinced the Senate to ratify the plan, and Scipio was given the requisite authority to attempt the invasion. One third of Hannibal's army were citizen levies, and the Romans had 6,100 cavalry to Carthage's 4,000, as most of the Numidian cavalry that Hannibal had employed with great success in Italy had defected to the Romans. The Romans failed to defeat him in the field and he remained in Italy, but following Scipio's decisive victory at the Battle of Ilipa in Spain in 206 BC, Iberia had been secured by the Romans. This would have allowed him to complete a victory with his reserves in the third line and overlap Scipio's lines. Laelius, the commander of the Roman left wing, charged against the Carthaginian right. The elephants opened the battle by charging the main Roman army. A batalla de Zama, librada o 19 de outubro do 202 a.C., foi unha batalla decisiva da segunda guerra púnica. La batalla de Zama (19 de octubre del 202 a. C.) representó el desenlace de la segunda guerra púnica. Though this formation was well-conceived, it failed to produce a Carthaginian victory. Scipio knew that elephants could be ordered to charge forward, but they could only continue their charge in a straight line. [14] The battle finally turned in the Romans' favor when the Roman cavalry returned to the battlefield and attacked the Carthaginian line from behind. Nesta batalla o exército da República Romana, liderado por Publio Cornelio Escipión o Africano, derrotou as forzas de Cartago lideradas por Aníbal. Scipio and Hannibal rearrange their troops into a single line and the battle remains a stalemate until the Roman cavalry returns and attacks Hannibal's infantry from the rear. Hannibal was first to march and reach the plains of Zama Regia, which were suitable for cavalry maneuvering. Escipión finalmente desembarcó en África en el año 203 a. C. Unos cuantos años antes de la invasión, la decisiva victoria de Escipión en la batalla de Ilipa en Hispania en el año 206 a. C. había asegurado a Roma el control de la península ibérica. Aníbal regresó a África desde el sur de Italia en auxilio de Cartago, que en aquellos momentos había perdido batalla tras batalla contra el ejército romano que había desembarcado en 204 a.C. bajo el mando de Publio Cornelio Escipión. [2] Putting his cavalry on the flanks, with the inexperienced Carthaginian cavalry on the right and the Numidians on the left, Hannibal aligned the rest of his troops in three straight lines behind his elephants. After defeating Carthaginian and Numidian armies at the battles of Utica and the Great Plains, Scipio imposed peace terms on the Carthaginians, who had no choice but to accept them. 2. [11] The first line consisted of mixed infantry of mercenaries from Gaul, Liguria and the Balearic Islands. After a close contest, his first line was pushed back by the Roman hastati. Scipio led a pre-Marian Roman army quincunx, along with a body of Numidian cavalry. Scipio's plan to neutralize the threat of the elephants had worked; his troops then fell back into traditional Roman battle formation. Hannibal moved forward with two lines; the third line of veterans was kept in reserve. Con ambos ejércitos frente a frente, los romanos soplaron los cuernos de batalla. Meanwhile, the rest of the elephants were carefully lured through the lanes and funneled to the rear of the Roman army, where they were dealt with. The Roman and Numidian cavalry subsequently defeated the Carthaginian cavalry and chased them from the battlefield. Entonces, la caballería romana de Cayo Lelio y los jinetes númidas de Masinisa, ya reorganizados tras la persecución de los jinetes de Tiqueo, regresaron en aquel momento al campo de batalla. Masinisa ordenó cargar a su caballería númida contra la menos numerosa de Tiqueo. Las condiciones impuestas a Cartago fueron humillantes. El general cartaginés consiguió unir a los hombres que pudo traer de Italia, los restos del ejército cartaginés en África, los evacuados del ejército de su hermano Magón en Liguria, los cuatro mil soldados macedonios enviados por Filipo V y nuevos contingentes de caballería númida de jefes tribales que aún permanecían fieles a Cartago. In 205 BC Scipio returned to Rome, where he was elected consul by unanimous vote. The Roman Senate ratified the treaty. [9] [14] He believed that if he opened gaps in his troops, the elephants would simply pass between them without harming any of his soldiers. Scipio was able to rally his men. The second line of citizen levies and the mercenaries' remnants assaulted and inflicted heavy losses on the Roman first line. The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. Cruzando los Alpes, Aníbal llegó a la península italiana en el año 218 a. C. y logró varias victorias importantes contra los ejércitos romanos. The plan was that when the elephants charged, these lanes would open, allowing them to pass through the legionaries' ranks and be dealt with at the rear of the army. Carthaginian cavalry carried out Hannibal's instructions well and there was no sign of Roman cavalry on the battlefield. Tanto Livio como Polibio coinciden en la cifra, aunque Tito Livio menciona que se utilizaron "más de" ochenta elefantes. Hannibal deployed his troops facing northwest, while Scipio deployed his troops in front of the Carthaginian army facing southeast. Only 55,000 survived. Los romanos capturaron también 133 estandartes militares y once elefantes. The combat was fierce and evenly matched. Scipio orders his cavalry to blow loud horns to terrify the charging beasts. Aníbal, que había ganado numerosas batallas en Italia operando durante 16 años en territorio enemigo, había sido derrotado en África, su tierra natal. The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. Siguiendo este plan, se obligó a la primera línea púnica a dividirse en dos retroceder por ambos lados de la segunda, donde Aníba les instruyó a tomar nuevas posiciones. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. With this reinforcement the Roman front renewed their attack and defeated Hannibal's second line. Hannibal experienced a major defeat that put an end to all resistance on the part of Carthage. When Rome waged war again on Carthage about 50 years later, the Carthaginians had little power and could not defeat the by-then very aged Masinissa in Africa. Neutralizado el ataque de los elefantes, la caballería romana y de sus aliados númidas maesilios (Numidia Oriental) comenzaron a perseguir a la caballería cartaginesa y de sus aliados númidas masesilios (Numidia Occidental). [6]:270, Initially, Scipio received no levy troops, and he sailed to Sicily with a group of 7,000 heterogeneous volunteers. Batalla de Zama is a "wargame", based on the battle at Zama 202 BC, where Annibal lost against Publio Cornelio Escipion. The Carthaginian senate recalled Hannibal, who was still in Italy (although confined to the south of the peninsula) when Scipio landed in Africa, in 203 BC. Escipión, que ahora era lo suficientemente poderoso, propuso poner fin a la guerra al invadir directamente la tierra natal del cartaginés. This also gave an edge in turn to Scipio, who relied greatly on his Roman heavy cavalry and Numidian light cavalry. The stronger right wing was composed of the Numidian cavalry and commanded by Masinissa, while the left was composed of Italian cavalry under the command of Laelius. Scipio played for time as he redeployed his forces in a single line with the hastati in the middle, the principes in the inner wings and the triarii on the outer wings. [7]:96 He was later authorized to employ the regular forces stationed in Sicily, which consisted mainly of the remnants of the 5th and 6th Legion, exiled to the island as a punishment for the humiliation they suffered at the Battle of Cannae. Al no haber podido derrotar a Aníbal o expulsarlo de Italia, los romanos cambiaron de estrategia y decidieron atacar directamente a Cartago, obligando a los cartagineses a llamar de vuelta a Aníbal, el cual estaba todavía en Italia, aunque estaba confinado al sur de la península. DATOS DE LA BATALLA Victoria aplastante para los A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal. Need a translated version? La batalla de Zama (19 de octubre del 202 a. C.) representó el desenlace de la segunda guerra púnica. [9] Livy states that Hannibal deployed 4,000 Macedonians in the second line. Esta página se editó por última vez el 14 oct 2020 a las 23:03. En ella se enfrentaron el general cartaginés Aníbal Barca y el joven Publio Cornelio Escipión, «el Africano Mayor», en las llanuras de Zama Regia.
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