[71] A. K. Sen, brother of the first chief election commissioner, received dictation from Tagore on 30 July 1941, a day prior to a scheduled operation: his last poem.[72]. Als sich 1884 Rabindranaths Schwägerin Kadambari aus ungeklärten Gründen das Leben nahm, traf ihn dies zutiefst. Rabindranaths insgesamt 103 Übersetzungen für diesen Band hielten sich nicht an die Versform des Originals, sondern sind in einer rhythmischen Prosa verfasst und oftmals sehr frei am Original orientiert. [89] He visited Aga Khan III, stayed at Dartington Hall, toured Denmark, Switzerland, and Germany from June to mid-September 1930, then went on into the Soviet Union. Cela (1989) | She had risen in an observant and sheltered traditional home, as had all her female relations. [123] Tagore influenced sitar maestro Vilayat Khan and sarodiyas Buddhadev Dasgupta and Amjad Ali Khan. Im Juli 1927 begann Tagore eine dreieinhalb Monate dauernde Rundreise durch Südostasien, die ihn nach Singapur, Java, Bali und auf der Rückreise über das damalige Siam (Thailand) führte. Die für europäische Leser völlig unbekannte Metaphorik beeindruckte die Ersthörer seiner Gedichte in England zutiefst. 1956: Das Postamt – Bearbeitung (Wort), Komposition und Regie: 1961: Das Postamt – Komposition: Rabindranath Tagore; Bearbeitung (Wort) und Regie: Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 29. Agnon/Sachs (1966) | Bellow (1976) | The Sri Lankan national anthem was inspired by his work. [29] Tagore loathed formal education—his scholarly travails at the local Presidency College spanned a single day. [citation needed], Internationally, Gitanjali (Bengali: গীতাঞ্জলি) is Tagore's best-known collection of poetry, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. He maintained that, even for those at the extremes of poverty, "there can be no question of blind revolution"; preferable to it was a "steady and purposeful education". They were Rarhi Brahmins and originally belonged to a village named Kush in the district named Burdwan in West Bengal. 1933 schrieb er zum 100. In the United States, Tagore's lecturing circuits, particularly those of 1916–1917, were widely attended and wildly acclaimed. [105] Many of the other Galpaguchchha stories were written in Tagore's Sabuj Patra period from 1914 to 1917, also named after one of the magazines that Tagore edited and heavily contributed to. [103] The four years from 1891 to 1895 are known as Tagore's "Sadhana" period (named for one of Tagore's magazines). Yeats (1923) | [141][142], Tagore renounced his knighthood in response to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919. Die Kunst seiner Heimat modernisierte er, indem er ihre strikte Struktur und klassische Formensprache gezielt angriff. Rainer Maria Rilke ist jener moderne Klassiker, der unter den Deutschen Tagore am nächsten stand und ihn schon vor seinem über Nacht entstandenen Ruhm verehrte. [80] His essay "Nationalism in India" was scorned and praised; it was admired by Romain Rolland and other pacifists. In May 1926 Tagore reached Naples; the next day he met Mussolini in Rome. Kumudini, Biprodas' sister, is caught between the two as she is married off to Madhusudan. Teaching was often done under trees. [8] At the age of sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. Lieder und vertonte Gedichte von Tagore fanden unter anderem Verwendung in: Prudhomme (1901) | Pamuk (2006) | Das dörfliche Leben beschrieb Rabindranath in ausführlichen und leidenschaftlichen Briefen; er entdeckte im dörflichen, naturnahen Leben seine eigenen Wurzeln. [132] Yet he lampooned the Swadeshi movement; he rebuked it in The Cult of the Charkha, an acrid 1925 essay. Mai 1861 in Kalkutta; 7. [78] From May 1916 until April 1917, he lectured in Japan and the United States. Vargas Llosa (2010) | As a "true dialectic" advancing "arguments for and against strict traditionalism", it tackles the colonial conundrum by "portray[ing] the value of all positions within a particular frame [...] not only syncretism, not only liberal orthodoxy, but the extremest reactionary traditionalism he defends by an appeal to what humans share." But, just as a mother lavishes most affection on her ugliest son, so I feel secretly drawn to the very skill that comes to me least easily." France (1921) | Fo (1997) | He escaped assassination—and only narrowly—by Indian expatriates during his stay in a San Francisco hotel in late 1916; the plot failed when his would-be assassins fell into argument. [137] Tagore wrote songs lionising the Indian independence movement. They hosted the publication of literary magazines; theatre and recitals of Bengali and Western classical music featured there regularly. And is there a principle in the physical world which dominates them and puts them into an orderly organization? [87] In early 1930 he left Bengal for a nearly year-long tour of Europe and the United States. [110], Besides Gitanjali, other notable works include Manasi, Sonar Tori ("Golden Boat"), Balaka ("Wild Geese" — the title being a metaphor for migrating souls)[111], Tagore's poetic style, which proceeds from a lineage established by 15th- and 16th-century Vaishnava poets, ranges from classical formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic. Seine Schwester Swarna Kumari Devi, eine Schriftstellerin, und seine Schwägerin Kadambari waren weitere Bezugspersonen. Heyse (1910) | [citation needed], On 14 July 1927 Tagore and two companions began a four-month tour of Southeast Asia. Die 1908 von Raden Soetomo (1888–1938) gegründete elitäre Organisation, die nur Indonesiern offenstand, sah in Tagore ein Vorbild für die erstrebte Kombination aus westlichem Bildungsideal und eigener nationaler Identität.[15]. It contains elements of satire and postmodernism and has stock characters who gleefully attack the reputation of an old, outmoded, oppressively renowned poet who, incidentally, goes by a familiar name: "Rabindranath Tagore". Lagerlöf (1909) | Tagore rebuked him for his seemingly ignominious implications. [69][70] The date is still mourned. I cannot send you one single flower from this wealth of the spring, one single streak of gold from yonder clouds. [102] With this, Tagore effectively invented the Bengali-language short story genre. F. Mistral/Echegaray (1904) | So I repeat we never can have a true view of man unless we have a love for him. Ein Studium schloss er jedoch nicht ab; nach 17 Monaten rief ihn die Familie deshalb zurück nach Indien. The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in the incongruous context of humiliation, and I for my part, wish to stand, shorn, of all special distinctions, by the side of those of my countrymen who, for their so called insignificance, are liable to suffer degradation not fit for human beings. Gide (1947) | August 1941 in seinem Geburtshaus. From your blossoming garden gather fragrant memories of the vanished flowers of an hundred years before. Each government pledged US$100,000 to his school to commemorate the visits. [96] In 2011, Harvard University Press collaborated with Visva-Bharati University to publish The Essential Tagore, the largest anthology of Tagore's works available in English; it was edited by Fakrul Alam and Radha Chakravarthy and marks the 150th anniversary of Tagore's birth. [12] Am 7. The Sri Lanka's National Anthem was inspired by his work. [77][154][155] Bengali culture is fraught with this legacy: from language and arts to history and politics. Yeats, unimpressed with his English translations, railed against that "Damn Tagore [...] We got out three good books, Sturge Moore and I, and then, because he thought it more important to see and know English than to be a great poet, he brought out sentimental rubbish and wrecked his reputation. On the occasion of Tagore's 150th birthday, an anthology (titled Kalanukromik Rabindra Rachanabali) of the total body of his works is currently being published in Bengali in chronological order. [19], Aquarelle und Zeichnungen von ihm zeigte 1930 die Galerie Ferdinand Möller in Berlin-Schöneberg; anschließend überließ Tagore in einem Brief an Ludwig Justi der Nationalgalerie ausgewählte Bilder als Geschenk.[20]. [b], Tagore was raised mostly by servants; his mother had died in his early childhood and his father travelled widely. Solschenizyn (1970) | August 1941 ebenda) war ein bengalischer Dichter, Philosoph, Maler, Komponist, Musiker und Brahmo-Samaj-Anhänger, der 1913 den Nobelpreis für Literatur erhielt und damit der erste asiatische Nobelpreisträger war. Hamsun (1920) | Rabindranath Tagore, Bengali Rabīndranāth Ṭhākur, (born May 7, 1861, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India—died August 7, 1941, Calcutta), Bengali poet, short-story writer, song composer, playwright, essayist, and painter who introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. So verband er etwa in seinem ersten musikalischen Spiel Das Genie des Valmiki (1881) irische Volkslieder mit klassischer indischer Musik. Tagore returned to Jorosanko and completed a set of major works by 1877, one of them a long poem in the Maithili style of Vidyapati. [104] In particular, such stories as "Kabuliwala" ("The Fruitseller from Kabul", published in 1892), "Kshudita Pashan" ("The Hungry Stones") (August 1895), and "Atithi" ("The Runaway", 1895) typified this analytic focus on the downtrodden. Translations are found at Project Gutenberg and Wikisource. Walcott (1992) | Recibiu o … Mahfuz (1988) | In the period 1914–1922, the Jiménez-Camprubí pair produced twenty-two Spanish translations of Tagore's English corpus; they heavily revised The Crescent Moon and other key titles. Als Lyriker und Dramatiker wurde er ein Pionier der bengalischen Bühnenkunst; erst 1872 war in Kalkutta ein erstes öffentliches Theater gegründet worden. [45] As Zamindar Babu, Tagore criss-crossed the Padma River in command of the Padma, the luxurious family barge (also known as "budgerow"). Graham Greene doubted that "anyone but Mr. Yeats can still take his poems very seriously." In Asien lag sein Fokus dabei auf der Bildung eines neuen Selbstbewusstseins durch die den Menschen innewohnende „spirituelle Kraft“, die er dem „materiellen Westen“ gegenüberstellte, sowie der Einheit der asiatischen Völker. Ishiguro (2017) | Today my sack is empty. Spitteler (1919) | This includes all versions of each work and fills about eighty volumes. Such stories mostly borrow from the lives of common people. Experimentation continued in his prose-songs and dance-dramas— Chitra (1914), Shyama (1939), and Chandalika (1938)— and in his novels— Dui Bon (1933), Malancha (1934), and Char Adhyay (1934). Lessing (2007) | Lewis (1930) | [55], In 1921, Tagore and agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst set up the "Institute for Rural Reconstruction", later renamed Shriniketan or "Abode of Welfare", in Surul, a village near the ashram. Hauptmann (1912) | In 2016, a baul singer named Pradip Bauri accused of sheltering the thieves was arrested and the prize was returned. [42] In 1883 he married 10-year-old[43] Mrinalini Devi, born Bhabatarini, 1873–1902 (this was a common practice at the time). [46] He met Gagan Harkara, through whom he became familiar with Baul Lalon Shah, whose folk songs greatly influenced Tagore. He was influenced by the atavistic mysticism of Vyasa and other rishi-authors of the Upanishads, the Bhakti-Sufi mystic Kabir, and Ramprasad Sen.[112] Tagore's most innovative and mature poetry embodies his exposure to Bengali rural folk music, which included mystic Baul ballads such as those of the bard Lalon. [121] Yet about nine-tenths of his work was not bhanga gaan, the body of tunes revamped with "fresh value" from select Western, Hindustani, Bengali folk and other regional flavours "external" to Tagore's own ancestral culture.[14]. Mauriac (1952) | Dylan (2016) | Rabindranath bereiste sowohl alleine als auch mit seiner Familie Nordindien und erlebte eine Phase hoher schöpferischer Produktivität. Im selben Jahr besuchte der Dichter auch Deutschland – die erste von insgesamt drei Reisen (1921, 1926 und 1930), auf denen er auch mit Karl Buschhüter, den Brüdern Karl und Robert Oelbermann sowie Gustav Wyneken auf Burg Waldeck (Hunsrück) (Nerother Wandervogel) zusammentraf. Wichtige Einflüsse auf die künstlerische Bildung Rabindranaths hatte sein Bruder Jyotirindranath (1849–1925), dessen liberale Erziehungsmethoden dem Jungen mehr lagen. Wells, and Romain Rolland. Paz (1990) | [170] Ortega y Gasset wrote that "Tagore's wide appeal [owes to how] he speaks of longings for perfection that we all have [...] Tagore awakens a dormant sense of childish wonder, and he saturates the air with all kinds of enchanting promises for the reader, who [...] pays little attention to the deeper import of Oriental mysticism". [7], The youngest of 13 surviving children, Tagore (nicknamed "Rabi") was born Robindronath Thakur[15] on 7 May 1861 in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta,[16] the son of Debendranath Tagore (1817–1905) and Sarada Devi (1830–1875). [39] He briefly read law at University College London, but again left school, opting instead for independent study of Shakespeare's plays Coriolanus, and Antony and Cleopatra and the Religio Medici of Thomas Browne. He pillories the custom of perpetual mourning on the part of widows, who were not allowed to remarry, who were consigned to seclusion and loneliness. Inzwischen gilt er als „Vater der modernen Kunst Indiens“. [14], Surrounded by several painters Rabindranath had always wanted to paint. Coetzee (2003) | Among these Tagore highlights "identity [...] conceived of as dharma."[108]. Zwei weitere Gedichtbände folgten in kurzer Folge 1913, teils von Rabindranath selbst, teils von bengalischen Mitarbeitern mehr oder weniger gelungen ins Englische übersetzt und von ihm autorisiert. Tokarczuk (2018) | He mentions about this in his My Reminiscences (1912), The golden temple of Amritsar comes back to me like a dream. Sein Großvater Dwarkanath (1794–1846) genoss hohes Ansehen in Bengalen, da er nicht nur seinem Wohlstand entsprechend prachtvoll lebte, den er unter anderem dem Opiumhandel nach China verdankte, sondern auch soziale, kulturelle und andere Einrichtungen wie Bildungsstätten unterstützte.
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